"Just in the last 36 hours did the [Israel Air Force] attack Iranian warehouses with Iranian weapons at the worldwide airport in Damascus", the premier said.
He said Syrian air defense units shot down most of the missiles, but gave no details on other sites targeted.
Israeli warplanes fired a number of missiles toward the Damascus area on Friday, the Syrian state news agency said.
The state news agency also quoted a transport ministry source as saying that the airport was running normally.
The Israeli jets reportedly crossed over to Syria through Lebanese airspace after having heavily roamed over Lebanon on Thursday. Reports from Syrian state media say that the attacks centered on a warehouse outside of the airport. However, the Arab country's air defense systems have thwarted most of the attacks.
The Israeli regime launches airstrikes on the Syrian territory from time to time, aggressive moves usually viewed as attempts to prop up terrorist groups that have been suffering defeats at the hands of Syrian government forces.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has vowed not to let Tehran entrench itself militarily in the war-torn country.
The Israeli warplanes flew from the Galilee Panhandle and fired several missiles on the vicinity of the capital Damascus, said an army statement.
Israel had previously said it will not tolerate Iran seeking to establish permanent military bases in Syria as the war there winds down after seven years of fighting.