Heeding a call from opposition leader Navalny, thousands took to the streets of dozens of cities against the controversial pension reform.
Police officers detain a protester during a rally against planned increases to the nationwide pension age in St. Petersburg, Russia.
A further 180 protesters were reported to have been detained in the city of Yekaterinburg, in the Ural Mountains, 60 in the southern Russian city of Krasnodar, 40 in the Siberian city of Omsk, and 40 in Russia's capital, Moscow.
Ahead of the vote a Moscow court jailed Navalny for 30 days after he announced plans to stage a rally against pension reform on election day. Protests organized by the Communist Party were held across Russian Federation earlier this month.
Supporters of Alexei Navalny, the leader of the liberal Russian Federation of the Future party, were quick to slam the US-based multinational company for what they described as a surrender in the face of illegal demands made by the administration of President Vladimir Putin, Efe news reported.
Turnout stood at 30.8 percent.
Thousands of supporters of jailed opposition leader Alexei Navalny protested across Russian Federation on Sunday against planned increases to the pension age, with a rights group saying at least 153 of them had been detained by the police. A lawyer for Navalny's Anti-Corruption Fund was arrested in Moscow before the rally there.
Navalny has likened Putin to an autocratic tsar who has clung to power for too long.
Thousands of of people took part in the demonstrations across 25 towns and cities, including in Moscow and in St. Petersburg, and almost 300 were arrested, according to monitoring groups. The Communist Party and United Russia got 34 percent and 27.8 percent in Irkutsk Oblast, 31 percent and 25.5 percent in Khakasia and 36.3 percent and 34 percent in Ulyanovsk Oblast, respectively.
In St. Petersburg, a crowd of around 1,000 people shouted "shame" and held signs calling for Putin's resignation.
Elections to select the heads of 26 of Russia's 85 regions are also being held on Sunday, including in Moscow.
In Moscow, authorities charged two men with assailing police.
The "unexpected failures" of the ruling party "are a bombshell similar to the spirit of 2011", when the largest anti-Kremlin protests of Putin's era erupted over alleged ballot-rigging, Kirill Rogov, a Moscow-based political analyst, said on Facebook.