A statement on the International Cricket Council's official Twitter feed said: 'The ICC can confirm the match officials in the second Test between West Indies and Sri Lanka changed the ball and awarded five penalty runs to West Indies.
"Sri Lanka captain Dinesh Chandimal has been charged for breaching Level 2.2.9 of the ICC Code of Conduct", ICC tweeted.
Sri Lanka eventually resumed play on day three on Saturday under protest, after delaying the start and strongly denying they had tampered with the ball.
There were animated discussions involving match referee Javagal Srinath and the Sri Lankan pair of coach Chandika Hathurusingha and team manager Asanka Gurusinha.
The umpires made a decision to change the match ball, which was 44.3 overs old, ahead of the third day in St Lucia, prompting Sri Lanka's players to stay in their dressing room.
The West Indies were awarded five penalty runs and Sri Lanka eventually agreed to take to the pitch with the ball being changed.
The Sri Lankan Biard ensured that they "will take all necessary steps to defend any player, in the event any unwarranted allegation is brought against any members of the team". But the home side was all out in a rush after tea for 300, a lead of 47 on the first innings.
Opening batsman Devon Smith top scored with a painstaking 61 while Shane Dowrich, fresh from a match-winning unbeaten century in the first Test in Trinidad, contributed 55.
Dinesh Chandimal with the umpires during the second Test between West Indies and Sri Lanka.
It was in March that Australia were caught tampering with the ball illegally on the third day of the third Test against South Africa in Cape Town.
The Pakistanis did not return to the field after tea on the fourth day and the umpires deemed this to mean they had forfeited the match, even though Pakistan later said they were willing to play.
Steve Smith, along with David Warner, was handed a one-year ban from both domestic and worldwide cricket by Cricket Australia while batsman Bancroft was handed a nine-month suspension for their involvement in the incident.